Print ISSN: 2706-6207

Online ISSN: 2664-3154

Surgical Care and Resident Education during COVID-19 Pandemic

Raid M. Al-Ani .; Amer Fakhree AL-Ubaide .

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 49-54

COVID-19 pandemic is nearly affecting all surgical activities including providing a surgical care to the patients as well as a negative impact on the educational program of the resident doctors in nearly all surgical specialties. During this period, surgeons set out to find an effective solution to deal with patients who visit outpatient surgical clinics or emergency units especially those who are infected or in contact with an infected individual. Moreover, the continuity of the educational program to the residents, doctors and completion of the syllabus is an essential issue needs to be done in a complete organized manner. The aims are to provide the best solution for them (surgical patients and resident doctors) as well as reducing the risk of the infection to other patients, residents, and healthcare staff. Telemedicine can act as a substitute to many in-person consultation, therefore, it aids in controlling the infection. Many studies and recommendations are tackling this vital issue among surgeons from different specialties across the globe. Despite minor variations among these, these studies serve the above-mentioned purposes. We highlight in this narrative review to give the surgeons an appropriate plan for dealing with suspected or infected COVID-19 surgical cases and to complete the surgical educational program of the resident doctors.

Rhinomanometric Evaluation of Patients with Nasal Obstruction Before and After Nasal Surgery

Thenoon Y A. Alkuder .; Husam H. Salman .

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 55-58

Background: Nasal obstruction is a common complaint in daily Otolaryngology practice.Rhinomanometric study is an objective tool for the evaluation of nasal obstruction.Objectives: To evaluate whether a correlation exists between the rhinomanomatric measurementof nasal resistance, nasal airflow, and the subjective sensation of airflow, pre and postoperatively.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the Otolaryngology Department at BasrahTeaching Hospital on 23 patients who prepared for nasal surgeries to improve their nasal obstructioncomplain. The study was covered the period of the 2004 year. The anterior rhinomanometry wasdone for all patients preoperatively (with and without decongestant) and post-operatively withoutdecongestant.Results: Out of 23 patients, 15 (65.2%) were males. The age ranged from 17 to 45 years witha mean of 25.5 years ± 7.019. The most common associated symptom with nasal obstructionwas rhinorrhea (n=15, 65.2%). Only 12 cases were attended by the postoperative evaluation.Three-quarters of them were showed clinical improvement, but 4 patients (34%) were showedrhinomanometric improvement (P-value = 0.002). There was no statistically significant differencebetween the pre- and postoperative rhinomanometric values without decongestant and the subjective sensation (P-value>0.05).Conclusion: The anterior rhinomanometry results didn't add a significant value to the clinicalevaluation of the patients with nasal obstruction.

Correlation of Testicular Volume and Semen Parameter with Varicocele Grades in Mosul City: A Case-Control Study

Asaad I Othman .; Nabeel M Al-Hamamy .

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 59-63

Background: Varicocele is a status of abnormal dilatation and sinuosity of the pampiniformplexus that leading to a decrease in the volume of the impacted testicle. Approximately 15-20%and 35% of healthy adult males and men with primary infertility are affected respectively. It wasconsidered as one of the surgically correctible causes of male infertility.Objectives: The objective of the current study was to investigate the correlation of testicularvolume and semen parameter with varicocele grades in patients with varicocele attending theDepartment of Urology of Al-Jumhory Teaching Hospital.Materials and methods: The current study was a case-control study which was conducted inthe Department of Urology at Al-Jumhory Teaching hospital, Mosul city, Iraq, during the periodJanuary 2018 to June 2019. A total of 250 participants were enrolled in this study (200 patientswith clinical varicocele and 50 healthy volunteers). Seminal fluid analysis, testicular size measuredby ultrasound scanning, and varicocele grading according to standard criteria based on clinicalexamination and Doppler study of genitalia were performed for all participants. Statistical analysiswas applied to test the correlation of testicular size and seminal fluid parameter with varicocelegrade.Results: Patients with varicocele were classified into three groups based on the grade of varicocele:Group I included 22 patients with Grade I varicocele (12%), Group II included 82 patients withGrade II varicocele (38%), and Group III included 96 patients with Grade III varicocele (50%).Besides, Group IV was assigned to healthy volunteers (50) as a control group. Sperms with normalmotility and morphology were 33% and 32%, 25% and 25%, 10% and 15%, 60% and 65% in groupI, group II, group III, and group IV respectively. There were significant statistical differences(P-value<0.05) between the testicular volumes of both Group II and Grade III and control groups.Conclusion: Men with large varicocele had significantly abnormal semen parameters as well asdecreased ipsilateral testicular volumes compared to men with small varicocele or healthy men.

Diagnosis of Pulmonary and Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis: Role of Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Different Body Fluids

Saleem O. Almawla .; Ossama I. Rahiem .; Rami B. Ayous

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 64-67

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems, particularly indeveloping countries. There are many tools to diagnose TB, one of them is the estimation of thelevel of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in various fluids in the body.Objectives: To find the role of ADA levels in 4 different types of body fluids to diagnose TB andextra-pulmonary TB.Materials and methods: This prospective study was conducted in the 3 main hospitals in Anbargovernorate, Iraq for one year from July 2019 to June 2020. Four types of body fluids [serumsamples, pleural fluid, ascetic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)] were collected from patients whowere suspected of having TB. The levels of ADA were measured by ELISA. An accurate diagnosisof TB was done by Genexpert real-time polymerase reaction (PCR). The results were comparedaccording to PCR findings.Results: Out of 176 patients, there were 31 patients were proved to be positive, for TB byGenexpert real-time PCR. The highest mean level of ADA in positive TB cases by PCR was inthe pleural fluid (58.258 ± 2.707), and the last was in the serum. There was a highly statisticallysignificant difference between the ADA levels in all 4 body fluids between the positive and negativeTB cases (P-value= 0.000). In the positive cases, the sensitivity of ADA levels in the serum, CSF,pleural fluid, and ascetic fluid were found to be 40%, 81%, 96%, and 94% respectively and thespecificity was found to be 88%, 72%, 94%, and 90% respectively.Conclusion: The ADA levels in all 4 body fluids were highly statistically significant differencebetween TB negative and positive cases diagnosed by PCR. However, they had different sensitivityand specificity levels.

Lactose Free-Milk for Young Children with Acute Diarrhea, Western of Iraq

Wisam Z. Al-Dulaimy .; Mohammed K. Al-Sabeea .; a, Muneam A. Ayyed .; Rafi Khaleel Al-Ani .

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 68-71

Background: Secondary lactose intolerance occurs commonly from intestinal inflammationfollowing infection recommending avoidance of milk contains lactose.Objectives: To identify the role of lactose-free milk (LFM) in the treatment of acute diarrhea inchildren ≤ 2 years in Al-Ramadi Maternity and Childhood Teaching Hospital in Ramadi city, Iraq.Materials and methods: This A single-blind randomized controlled trial study was done onbabies ≤ two years old who presented with acute diarrhea. Two hundred cases were chosenrandomly, 100 of them were received LFM added to the regime of management of diarrhea (groupA), and the other 100 cases were received ordinary formula milk (OFM) (group B). Babies whowere breastfeeding, those with chronic or bloody diarrhea, and those who received antibiotics wereexcluded from this study. Data about age, gender, the response ( stopping diarrhea), and itsduration within 3 days were recorded.Results: The response of stopping diarrhea after 3 days among group A was 89%, while groupB was 67%. There was a highly statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P-value= 0.001). Out of 44 babies in the age group 0-6 months in group A, there were 42 (95.4%) whorespond to therapy, and it was the highest age group affected. There was a high statisticallysignificant difference (P-value = 0.003) between the rate of response and the age group in group A.However, there was no significant difference (P-value > 0.05) between the gender and the responserate. Moreover, there was no significant difference (P-value > 0.05) between the rate of responseand the age and gender of the babies in group B. There was a statistically significant difference(P-value < 0.05) between group A and B concerning the mean duration of response (55.06 hours ±11.304 in group A, and 63.58 hours ± 8.727 in group B).Conclusion: There were a high response rate and rapid response among young children with acutediarrhea after giving LFM in comparison with OFM.

Histological and Biochemical Evaluation of the Effect of Desloratadine Drug in Parotid Gland Tissues

Intesar J. Mohammed .; Entedhar R. Sarha .; Siham A. Wadee .; Salwa M. Al-Shiakhani .

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 72-77

Background: The functional deterioration of salivary glands is a consequence of a wide range offactors and significantly interfered with life quality. Desloratadine (an antihistamine) is among thedrugs listed to cause dry mouth; however, its effect on major salivary gland tissues has not beenwell studied.Objectives: To evaluate the effects of desloratadine treatment on parotid gland tissues, histologicalfeatures, and their impact on serum oxidative and antioxidant markers.Materials and methods: Thirty rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups(each containing ten rats). Group A: control rats. Group B and C have received desloratadineat dose 0.142 and 0.245 mg/kg of body weight respectively for three weeks. After three weeks,serum levels of sialic acid, malondialdehyde, catalase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase,creatin kinase, and glutathione were estimated for three groups. Then, animals were sacrificedand five µm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were prepared routinely from parotidglands for histological evaluation under light microscope.Results: The histological evaluation of salivary gland tissues in both treated-groups was revealeda remarkable cytoplasmic vacuolization, atrophy, and degranulation in acinic cells. The serousacinar cells were showed autolysis and nuclear changes (pyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis).There was an increase in the interstitial spaces between each parenchymal element associatedwith few mononuclear cell infiltrations. The intra-lobular ducts were reduced in size and wereindistinct throughout lobes. The severe changes were associated with higher desloratadine dose.Regarding biochemical analysis, the treated-groups had significantly increased serum levels ofmalondialdehyde, sialic acid, lactate dehydrogenase and creatin kinase, and significantly reducedserum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione.Conclusion: Desloratadine administration produces noticeable histological changes in a dosedependent manner associated with increased oxidative stress markers and decreased antioxidativeactivity.

Acute Appendicitis in Situs Inversus Totalis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Ali Mahdi Al-Tamim .; Sami M. Al-Rubaye .; Mansoor Idan Al-Zubaidi .

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 78-80

Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical condition seen in the emergency unit. In mostcases, the diagnosis is straightforward, but sometimes it is not easy as it may be presented in anatypical manner like unusual pain in the left iliac fossa. A 10-years-old boy was presented with anacute abdomen started in the periumbilical area and thereafter, shifted to the left iliac fossa. ChestX-ray and abdominal CT scan was confirmed the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with situs inversustotalis (SIT). Conventional appendectomy was performed with a good outcome. In addition to thedetailed history and proper examination, a high index of suspicion and radiological investigationsare mandatory to diagnose acute appendicitis in subjects with SIT.

Residual Alveolar Ridge Atrophy In Anbar Province

Suhair W. Aboud; Halah F. Ahmed; Tahrir N. N. Aldelaimi

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 25-29

Background: Alveolar ridge atrophy represent a serious dental problem to maxillofacial surgeon, prosthodontist and general dental practitioner. Objectives & Aims: To evaluate the cases of residual alveolar ridge atrophy in Anbar Province.Materials & Methods: A total of 275 edentulous patients were examined in this clinical study in College of Dentistry, Anbar University, Kalk & Baat classification was used to classify the patient casts according to the degree of resorption into three classes.Results: About (65. 4%) has no previous dentures, the mean ridge height was greater in male than in female, 36. 8% had high CL 1, and 14. 4% had extensive CL2 resorption. Conclusion: It has been found that the residual alveolar bone resorption was attributed to multiplicity of correlated factors such a sex, age, general health & metabolic activity.Key words:Ridge atrophy, alveolar ridge, edentulous patients, mandible, bone resorption.

Effect of Tramadol on Ovine Ureteral Smooth Muscle Contractility: an in vitro Experimental Study

Atheer K. Zgair; Majid A. K. Lafi; Jamal A. Noman

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2013, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 11-16

Background: Tramadol was recently suggested to be an effective and relatively safe pharmacological treatment for pain and hyperalgesia in urinary colic from calculosis. It can apparently represent a valid therapeutic approach to this medical problem, especially in cases where conventional therapy cannot be applied. However, up to our knowledge, the in vitro effect of tramadol on ureteral smooth muscle contractility has not been investigated.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of tramadol on the ovine spontaneous ureteral activity and attempt to determine its pharmacological basis.
Methods: In vitro experiments were performed on ureteral ring preparations in an organ bath. Contractions per minute (frequency) were calculated. The effect of tramadol, was obtained on its own and in the presence of naloxone, chlorpheniramine, phenoxybenzamine, atropine, or diclofenac; while, the effects of histamine, phenylephrine and acetylcholine (ACh) were recorded on their own and in the presence of their respective antagonists.
Results: Tramadol (50M) significantly enhanced the spontaneous rhythmic motility (1.21 ± 0.25 to 3.3 ± 0.54). Further, naloxone (2M), chlorpheniramine (M), atropine (M), or diclofenac (10M) failed to inhibit the excitatory effect of tramadol. However, phenoxybenzamine (1M) appreciably attenuated the excitatory effect of tramadol.
Conclusions: Tramadol produces substantial excitatory-ureteral activity by a mechanism that is still to be clarified and apparently not dependent on activation of opioid receptors, H1-receptors, muscarinic-receptors, or prostanoid synthesis and partly dependent on aminergic mechanisms

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: a Preliminary Morphometric Study

Aiad Abdullah Abdulrazak

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2013, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 62-68

Background: Assessment of nuclear morphology is crucial for the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, it is often hampered by subjectivity and inter-obsever variation.
Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the usefulness of nuclear morphometry as an objective approach to the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Material and Methods: Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections from twenty-eight cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was evaluated for nuclear size, area and perimeter by semi-automated image analysis system.
Results: The parameters related to nuclear morphology (nuclear size, area, & perimeter) of neoplastic lymphocytes were significantly higher in large cell lymphoma as compared to small cell, intermediate cell & Burkitt's lymphoma but, not for mixed cell lymphoma. This finding was further substantiated when calculating the overlap index.
Conclusion: This study supports the assumption that nuclear morphometry offers a more objective and reproducible diagnostic method for subcategorizing lymphoid tumors than is currently possible by conventional histopathological techniques

Bacterial vaginosis and Candida albicans vaginitis among women in Ramadi City

Huda R. S. AL-Alwani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 13-18

AbstractPatients and methods: A prospective study was performed involving 65 women who consecutively attended Gynecological ward in Maternity and Child Hospital in Ramadi for complaints of genital malodour and/or abnormal vaginal discharge. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 30 women on the basis of four diagnostic criteria: vaginal pH> 4.7, homogenous vaginal discharge, a positive amine test and presence clue cells. This diagnosis was further strengthened by microscopy of wet preparation and stained smears and culture of vaginal discharge under aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and anaerobic cultural condition. Results: A total of 65 high vaginal specimens, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 30 (46.2%) women, vulvovaginal yeast fungi infection in 12 (18.5%) women, other aetiology in 16 (24.6%) and in Seven (10.8%) women showing sterile vaginal discharge. The sensitivity for in vitro bacterial vaginosis detecting criteria was > 90% with the exception of homogenous discharge (73.3%) and their specificity was > 90% except vaginal pH > 4.5 (56%). Gardenerella vaginalis 27 (90%) was the predominant bacteria isolated in women suffering from bacterial vaginosis followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (63.3%) and Streptococcus faecalis 13 (43.3%). Candida albicans 11 (91.6%) was the major cause of vulvovaginal yeast fungi infections followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1 (8.3%). Conclusions: The four diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis supported by gram staining and facultative anaerobic culture should be introduce into laboratory routine procedures to differentiate symptomatic carrier (true infection) caused largely by Gardenerella vaginalis from asymptomatic carrier (colonization).Also, there was a strong association between diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and the occurrence of Gardenerella vaginalis. Further, there was no difference between women with or without bacterial vaginosis in regards to contraceptive methods used (except for use of an intrauterine device). Further more, Diabetes mellitus, hygienic condition were the most predominant risk factors associated with highly frequently fungal isolates, Candida albicans.

The role of campylobacter species in diarrhea among children under five years of age in Ramadi city ,west of Iraq .

Saleem O. Al-Mawla; Fakhri J Al-Dalla Ali; Mohammad M.Al-Ani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 76-87

Objective: The main objectives of the present study were to identify the incidence of Campylobacter species and their antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors among children with diarrhea under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city.Materials and methods: Two hundred eighty children under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city for management of diarrhea over a period of one year from (1st of October 2005 to 30th of September 2006), were studied for identification of Campylobacter species as a cause of diarrhea. Each child was studied for the followings: age, sex, residency, source of water supply, associated symptoms, type of feeding and family history of chicken breeding.Specific cultures of stool specimens for Campylobacter were done for all patients and also for ordinary bacterial agents. Isolates were identified and the percentage of the causative agents were discussed .Results: Campylobacter species as a causative agent of acute diarrhea in Ramadi city was found to be 8.92%.The incidence of Campylobacter species among other bacterial causes of diarrhea was 21.2%. Ciprofloxacin , nalidixic acid and clindamycin demonstrated high level of susceptibility (96%, 92% and 96% respectively), while the remaining antibiotics showed either moderate susceptibility or resistance.Conclusion: Campylobacter species is an imprtant cause for diarrhea among children under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city. Bottle feeding and chicken breeding are important risk factors for getting Campylobacter infection. Ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and clindamycin are the most effective treatment for Campylobacter species, and recommended as drugs of choice.Keywords: campylobacter , diarrhea ,under five ,Ramadi.

Detection of Human Rhinovirus Antigen (RhV-Ag) and Total IgE in Serum Samples from Common Cold Patients

Noor N. Al-Hayani; Israa H. Saadoon; Mushtak T. Salih

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2017, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 15-23

Background: Human rhinovirus infections account for approximately 50% of common colds and up to 80% or more of all infections during respiratory epidemic outbreaks. Rhinovirus infections are considered as a major trigger of asthma exacerbations. Almost all children have experienced at least one rhinovirus infection by the age of two years. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can detect rhinovirus specific antibodies in both sera and nasal secretions of patients with a rhinovirus infection. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was shown to be more sensitive and reliable than the traditional neutralization test.
Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in Al- Ramadi city from the first of December, 2012 to the end of April 2013. The number of patients recruited in this study who having a common cold was 150. All of them were tested for the RhV-Ag and IgE tests. An interview was carried out with these patients using questionnaire prepared by the investigators and it's include the following: name, age, residency and occupation …etc.
Results: Out of 150 patients, RhV-Ag was found in 104 (69.33%) as detected by the technique of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay. The simple linear correlation coefficient between RhV-Ag and IgE readings was calculated and found to be significant (r=0.242, p<0.05). The two-sample t-test was used in order to compare means RhV-Ag and IgE between adults and children of the considered sample, the t-test revealed that means RhV-Ag and IgE of the children were significantly lower than that of the adults.
Conclusion: Means of RhV-Ag and IgE were compared with respect to age groups (adults and children), in both comparisons adults found to have significantly higher means than children. IgE and RhV-Ag were found to be significantly linearly correlated.

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: a Preliminary Morphometric Study

Aiad Abdullah Abdulrazak

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2013, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 62-68

Background: Assessment of nuclear morphology is crucial for the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, it is often hampered by subjectivity and inter-obsever variation.
Objectives: This work is aimed at studying the usefulness of nuclear morphometry as an objective approach to the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Material and Methods: Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections from twenty-eight cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was evaluated for nuclear size, area and perimeter by semi-automated image analysis system.
Results: The parameters related to nuclear morphology (nuclear size, area, & perimeter) of neoplastic lymphocytes were significantly higher in large cell lymphoma as compared to small cell, intermediate cell & Burkitt's lymphoma but, not for mixed cell lymphoma. This finding was further substantiated when calculating the overlap index.
Conclusion: This study supports the assumption that nuclear morphometry offers a more objective and reproducible diagnostic method for subcategorizing lymphoid tumors than is currently possible by conventional histopathological techniques

The role of campylobacter species in diarrhea among children under five years of age in Ramadi city ,west of Iraq .

Saleem O. Al-Mawla; Fakhri J Al-Dalla Ali; Mohammad M.Al-Ani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 76-87

Objective: The main objectives of the present study were to identify the incidence of Campylobacter species and their antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors among children with diarrhea under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city.Materials and methods: Two hundred eighty children under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city for management of diarrhea over a period of one year from (1st of October 2005 to 30th of September 2006), were studied for identification of Campylobacter species as a cause of diarrhea. Each child was studied for the followings: age, sex, residency, source of water supply, associated symptoms, type of feeding and family history of chicken breeding.Specific cultures of stool specimens for Campylobacter were done for all patients and also for ordinary bacterial agents. Isolates were identified and the percentage of the causative agents were discussed .Results: Campylobacter species as a causative agent of acute diarrhea in Ramadi city was found to be 8.92%.The incidence of Campylobacter species among other bacterial causes of diarrhea was 21.2%. Ciprofloxacin , nalidixic acid and clindamycin demonstrated high level of susceptibility (96%, 92% and 96% respectively), while the remaining antibiotics showed either moderate susceptibility or resistance.Conclusion: Campylobacter species is an imprtant cause for diarrhea among children under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city. Bottle feeding and chicken breeding are important risk factors for getting Campylobacter infection. Ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and clindamycin are the most effective treatment for Campylobacter species, and recommended as drugs of choice.Keywords: campylobacter , diarrhea ,under five ,Ramadi.

The Effect of Body Mass Index and Serum Estradiol on Serum Prostatic Specific Antigen in Normal Iraqi Men

Nehad Nejris Helal

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 7-13

Background: Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) is one of the promising tumor markers of this decade. PSA level correlates positively with age and prostatic volume, and age-adjusted PSA values and the PSA density can be used to more precisely screen for prostatic carcinoma.
Aim of the Study: Is to identify the effect of body mass index and serum estradiol level on serum PSA in normal men in Salahaldin province.
Subjects & Methods: A cross-sectional controlled study was conducted during the body mass index from the 1st of February 2009 to the end of August 2009 in Salahaldin province. 50 males with BMI ≥ 30 [obese group or group (1)] and 50 males with BMI ≥ 18.5 and < 25 [control group or group (2)] were enrolled in this study. Subjects were collected from Tikrit Teaching Hospital. All subjects were within the same age group between 40-50 years of age. Total serum PSA, serum estradiol, body mass index, and prostatic volume measurement were done for every person in the study. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Analysis was performed by SPSS software, version 17.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA).
Results: The mean age of group (1) was 44 + 2.8 years; while for group (2) was 45.4 + 2 years (P=0.31). Also no significant statistical difference was identified between groups concerning prostatic volume, mean 19.9 + 3.6 ml for group (1) and mean volume was 20.7 + 3.4 ml for group (2) (P=0.48). Mean BMI for group (1) 34.85 + 3.7 kg/m2 (CI 33.8-35.9) was significantly higher than that of group (2), 21.9 + 2.78 kg/m2 (CI 21.4-22.42), P< 0.0001. Mean PSA level for group (2) was significantly higher than that of group (1), 3 + 0.7 ng/ml (CI 2.78-3.2), 2.28 + 0.89 ng/ml (CI 2-2.53) respectively, P< 0.001. Mean estradiol level in group (1) was 91.6 + 20.5 pg/ml (CI 85.8-97.5), whereas it was 57.5 + 22.4 pg/ml (CI 51.1-63.9) for group (2), P< 0.0001. The bivariate correlation showed strong inverse relation between PSA level and BMI (Pearson r=0.635, P<0.01). PSA level had strong inverse relation with estadiol level, (Pearson r=0.705, P<0.001). On applying linear regression model, again inverse relations with strong linear trend between PSA level and both BMI and estradiol level. The increase in BMI and estradiol level was associated with considerable decrease in PSA level.
Conclusions: BMI and serum Estradiol had an inverse relationship with serum PSA level. Further studies with larger number of subjects are crucial to asses the specific biological pathway in relation between PSA and BMI.

Keywords: Prostatic specific antigen, Body mass index.

Pattern of Skin Disorders Among Female Secondary School in Fallujah City

Asma I Alajeel

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 19-25

Introduction: Adolescence is the transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between childhood and adulthood. The pattern of skin disease in general varies in frequency and severity in different age groups and it differ with geographical locations due to environmental, race factors, sex and age.
Objective: To determine the pattern and severity of skin disease among adolescent female students in Fallujah city in order to understand the effect and the impact of skin diseases at this stage of life.
Patients and Methods: This is a cross sectional study of 400 adolescent female students with skin diseases in Fallujah secondary schools. The study was performed during the period from November 2009 - May 2010. The students were examined for the type of skin disorder and its severity.
Results: The majority of the patients had one skin disorder 62%; the remainder had 2 or more disorders. The most common skin diseases and conditions were the disease of skin appendages (with the acne being the most common one) followed by dermatitis and related conditions and then skin infections.
Acne was noticed in (30%) of students, affecting the face (95.5%) and trunk (4.5%). The next common disorder was hirsutism (25%), atopic dermatitis, (15%), diffuse hair loss (10%), dandruff (7.5%), warts (7. 5%) and (scabies 7%).
A large number of acne patients had also hirsutism and to lesser extent dandruff and Androgenetic alopecia and these patients were found to have high free testosterone level and ultrasound appearance of polycystic ovary (PCO) which pointed to the diagnosis of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Conclusion: Skin diseases are common among adolescent female students in Fallujah city. The most common skin disorders at this age were acne and hirsutism which is of cosmetic importance, so early and proper management of these disorders is important to prevent the late disfiguring sequel and psychological problems.

Journal Information

Publisher: University of Anbar

Email:  anbarmedj@uoanbar.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: DR. Raid M. Al-Ani

About Journal

Al-Anbar Medical Journal (AMJ) is an international peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the College of Medicine, University of Anbar. The Journal provides a suitable media of communication for biomedical researchers all over the world. The Journal welcomes original articles, review articles,...
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