Keywords : Anemia
Al- Anbar Medical Journal,
2017, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 75-84
Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developed & developing countries during pregnancy & has an adverse effect on both mother & fetus.
Objectives: Estimation of the prevalence of anemia and dietary pattern during pregnancy in Ramadi health center & Hit health center during the period between January –April , 2013
Method; A cross sectional study was carried out in Ramadi (AL-Till health center) & Hit (Hit health center) during the period between January–April , 2013. Hundred in AL- Ramadi & Hit of available pregnant females in 3rd trimester in both centers were interviewed.
Results; The study revealed that quarter of the pregnant females were below age of 18 years & reached 30% above 30 years especially in Hit health center. About half of the females were anemic in Ramadi center, 45%had mild anemia (mean hemoglobin 9.8 ± 0.8), mean HCT 31.8%±0.8.
7% had moderate anemia (mean hemoglobin 8.2 ± 0.6), HCT 27.3%±0.5 while the prevalence of anemia increased to 62% in Hit center, 29% had mild anemia (mean 9.5 ± 0.5, HCT 31%±0.3.
27% had moderate anemia (mean 7.6 ± 1.06), HCT 27.2%±0.5 but 6% were with severe anemia (mean SD 6.3± 0.4), HCT 24%±0.6, with statistically difference, PV=0.001. Less than half of the respondents had normal weight gain (8-12kg) & 70% without spacing between last deliveries with multiparty in both centers. More than half of anemic females drank tea > twice/day directly after meal with significant association especially in Ramadi center. There were no educational sessions about healthy diet, family planning, proper habits in both centers. Quarter of pregnant women had good intake of red meat in both centers and another had average intake in both centers, less than half of respondents had average intake of poultry in Ramadi center but less intake in Hit center, there was poor intake of fish in Ramadi center but improved in Hit center, there was poor intake of liver of in both centers with inverse association between anemia & meat group intake. Less than half of the respondents had milk daily &weekly in both centers; the same picture was found with eggs. All of them had cooked rice with oil, white bread daily, potato & macaroni weekly& legumes monthly in both centers. All of them had good intake of tomato & cucumber in both centers, less than half of them had average intake of green pepper, green leaves &lettuce but all of them had poor intake of spinach, carrot, chard, beet in both centers. Less than half had average intake of orange, apple & dates, granite in Ramadi center: the same picture for apple but improved for dates & granite to 20% as good & 60% as average intake in Hit center, less for intake of banana that 20% had average intake, while for raisins didn’t take it in both centers.
Conclusion: It is concluded that more than half of pregnant women were anemic, with multiparty because of lack of spacing between deliveries. All of them didn’t receive any educational sessions that need guidance in selecting of nutrient dense foods & removing of bad nutritional habit of drinking tea with or directly after meals in both centers.
Recommendations: Continuous nutrition education and monitoring programs with proper nutrition counselling should be developed at all levels according to the recommendations to anemia. Community-based participatory women's group interventions have been found to be particularly effective i