Print ISSN: 2706-6207

Online ISSN: 2664-3154

Keywords : risk factors


Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors and Awareness among patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus Disease in Al-Noaman General Hospital in Baghdad City - 2014

Ban Nadhum Al- Any

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2016, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 85-95

Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
Hyperglycemia , or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels .
Objectives : 1. To assess the trends of risk factors in patients with type (II) Diabetes Miletus.
2. To assess the awareness of patients with type (II) Diabetes Miletus.
3. To assess the Dietary Pattern of patients with type (II) Diabetes Miletus.
Method: A Cross sectional descriptive study with convenience non probability sampling had been carried out during the period between February- June , 2014 that (160 ) available patients in AL-Noaman hospital in Baghdad city were interviewed .
Results: The study showed that most of patients were above 60 years of age with average income , low education & had the disease for more than 5 years . Females formed 62% of those involved patients. For other risk factors half of them were still smokers, 62.5% were with family history of the disease , half of patients had hypertension , quarter of them had heart failure & small part of them had renal failure & ischemic heart disease. For the average mean of blood cholesterol was 259 mg /dl, SD ± 83.55 , (CI 275.38- 242.62) p value < 0.05 while average mean of triglycerides was 212 mg /dl , SD ±29. 31, (CI 217.75- 206.25) p value <0.05& average of body mass index (BMI) was 34.
For knowledge & awareness about the disease half of patients knew it by having frequent hunger , thirst & less by frequent urination , blurred vision & others discovered it accidentally. . For risk factors quarter of them said that it occurred due to family history of the disease , others said that it occurred due to lack of exercise , obesity , diet , heart disease while half of them didn’t know about them & most of them didn’t know about the complications of the disease . - More than half of them said that sugar & sweets should be avoided , others said that should avoid all carbohydrates & oil while half of them said that should avoid pregnancy for diabetic females & the same said that could skip treatment when the level of blood sugar has been controlled . - For checking of blood sugar , 50% said that should be checked weekly & others said should be checked monthly .
-More than half of them had their knowledge from relatives while only small part of them had their knowledge from medical staff & there was significant association between awareness & education that x² = 40 , P value =0.005 . - For dietary pattern the study showed that half of them had good & average intake of red meat & more for chicken while 80% with poor intake of fish . more than half of patients had average intake of full cream milk , full cream cheese while reached to70% with good & average intake of yogurt . for egg half of them had boiled & others had fried eggs daily. For carbohydrate most of them had eaten white bread and the same had eaten rice with oil daily while only 20% had brown bread daily . Half of them had good & average intake of fresh vegetables & more for cooked vegetables . Half of them had average & poor intake of apple & banana while for orange 60% had poor intake. Most of them took of tea with sugar & less for coffee with sugar .
Conclusion: most of patients were with poor awareness about the disease &still has high risk factors and most of medical tips were from relatives with poor application of these tips and didn’t follow a healthy lifestyle & dietary pattern.
effectively use the insulin it produces.
Hyperglycemia , or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels .
Objectives : 1. To assess the trends of risk factors in patients with type (II) Diabetes Miletus.
2. To assess the awareness of patients with type (II) Diabetes Miletus.
3. To assess the Dietary Pattern of patients with type (II) Diabetes Miletus.
Method: A Cross sectional descriptive study with convenience non probability sampling had been carried out during the period between February- June , 2014 that (160 ) available patients in AL-Noaman hospital in Baghdad city were interviewed .
Results: The study showed that most of patients were above 60 years of age with average income , low education & had the disease for more than 5 years . Females formed 62% of those involved patients. For other risk factors half of them were still smokers, 62.5% were with family history of the disease , half of patients had hypertension , quarter of them had heart failure & small part of them had renal failure & ischemic heart disease. For the average mean of blood cholesterol was 259 mg /dl, SD ± 83.55 , (CI 275.38- 242.62) p value < 0.05 while average mean of triglycerides was 212 mg /dl , SD ±29. 31, (CI 217.75- 206.25) p value <0.05& average of body mass index (BMI) was 34.
For knowledge & awareness about the disease half of patients knew it by having frequent hunger , thirst & less by frequent urination , blurred vision & others discovered it accidentally. . For risk factors quarter of them said that it occurred due to family history of the disease , others said that it occurred due to lack of exercise , obesity , diet , heart disease while half of them didn’t know about them & most of them didn’t know about the complications of the disease . - More than half of them said that sugar & sweets should be avoided , others said that should avoid all carbohydrates & oil while half of them said that should avoid pregnancy for diabetic females & the same said that could skip treatment when the level of blood sugar has been controlled . - For checking of blood sugar , 50% said that should be checked weekly & others said should be checked monthly .
-More than half of them had their knowledge from relatives while only small part of them had their knowledge from medical staff & there was significant association between awareness & education that x² = 40 , P value =0.005 . - For dietary pattern the study showed that half of them had good & average intake of red meat & more for chicken while 80% with poor intake of fish . more than half of patients had average intake of full cream milk , full cream cheese while reached to70% with good & average intake of yogurt . for egg half of them had boiled & others had fried eggs daily. For carbohydrate most of them had eaten white bread and the same had eaten rice with oil daily while only 20% had brown bread daily . Half of them had good & average intake of fresh vegetables & more for cooked vegetables . Half of them had average & poor intake of apple & banana while for orange 60% had poor intake. Most of them took of tea with sugar & less for coffee with sugar .
Conclusion: most of patients were with poor awareness about the disease &still has high risk factors and most of medical tips were from relatives with poor application of these tips and didn’t follow a healthy lifestyle & dietary pattern..

Reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer

Mahasin A. Altaha

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2013, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 17-26

Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of female cancer among Iraqi women. Some reproductive factors have been shown to be associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. There haven’t been any studies investigating the association between pregnancy outcome and breast cancer in Iraq.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the possible associations between some reproductive factors as age of menarche, age at first delivery, parity and pregnancy outcome (i.e normal full term birth, abortion, premature delivery or multiple births) and risk of maternal breast cancer in AL-Anbar Governorate, west of Iraq.
Patients and methods: The study was conducted in the oncology clinic in AL-Ramadi General Hospital during the period from October 2011 to April 2012. The study consisted of 100 breast cancer cases confirmed on histopathology and 200 group- matched healthy controls. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR); and 95% confidence interval (CI) for odds ratio were also performed.
Results: results showed that earlier age at menarche 30 years, and not having given birth were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. With regards to birth outcome, full term birth was found to be associated with lower risk, the more the number of full term births, the more protection was found.
Premature deliveries < 8 months of gestation was found to be significantly associated with nearly three times risk compared to those with full term deliveries (O.R.=2.98, CI=1.60-5.56, p= 0.002), while premature deliveries > 8 months was not associated with risk, so as the effects of stillbirth. History of more than one abortion was found to slightly increase the breast cancer risk (O.R=1.24,CI= 0.70-2.18, p= 0.57). Having twin or multiple births were found to be protective against breast cancer (O.R=0.32, CI=0.12-0.86, p=0.019).
Conclusion: Risky reproductive factors for breast cancer included early age of menarche, late age at first full term birth, and nulliparity. More than one abortion seemed to slightly increase the risk, while on the other hand premature deliveries < 8 months significantly increased the risk of breast cancer. Pregnancy outcome in a form of full term birth, multiparty and twin births were protective against breast cancer

Detection of major risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction in Al-Ramadi city

Khalid Al-Rawi; Hameed A. Al-Zagroot; Abdulla L. Jassim; Amar Y. Abdullan

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 75-77

Objective : To study the prevalence of major risk factors like age , hypertension , and diabetes mellitus and smoking in acute myocardial infarction and their effect on the development of complication.
Methods : A 207 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to the cardiac care unit in Al-Ramadi general hospital were included in the study from May 2001 to May 2002. A questionnaire form including : age, sex, presence of hypertension , diabetes mellitus, smoking , and presence of any complication like arrhythmia, heart failure….etc.
Results : There was an increase in the prevalence of myocardial infarction with increasing age . The mean percentage of hypertensive patients was 44% while for diabetes mellitus and smoking were 27% and 40% , respectively . About 53% of hypertensive patients and smokers developed complications of MI, while 35% of diabetes had complications .
Conclusion: There are an increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction and its complications in the presence of one or more major risk factors.
Key words : Myocardial infarction, complications, risk factors