Document Type : Original articles


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Erbil Technical Health and Medical College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq

2 Department of Biology, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq

3 Department of Nursing, Erbil Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq


Background: Smoking is the foremost public health problem affecting the world and it has a crucial implication in causing many common diseases due to Helicobacter pylori infection which is globally distributed. Smoking is considered a critical risk factor that accelerates infection with this bacterium.
Objectives: The study's goal was to find out how common Helicobacter pylori infections were among male cigarette and nargileh smokers.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed between August and December 2021in Erbil Teaching Hospital in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.  Blood samples were collected and used for detection of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG Abfor 80 males who were smokers and 80 who were non-smoker.
Results; The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori positivity was 64.9% in smokers and 45.5% in nonsmokers (P-Value = 0.03). The highest percentage (54.1%) was found in the young age group (25-34) years (P-Value = 0.05), and 89.2% of Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals exhibited stomach symptoms (P-Value = 0.01). Fifty percent of Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals were nargileh smokers.  
Conclusion: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori showed significant value in nargileh smoking males. Therefore, smoking was a key factor in the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and had a substantial impact on it.


Main Subjects

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