Issue 1

Antibacterial Activity of Tannins Extracted from Some Medicinal plants in vitro

Nasreen Mohammed; Rana Talib Al-Ani; Atheer abd-alhameed; Sabri Mohammed

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Objective: To investigate the inhibition effect of some condensed tannins on the growth of four type of bacteria in vitro.
Materials and methods: Susceptibilities were determined using diffusion method. Tests were conducted aerobically using AC agar medium.
Results: The result indicate that source and concentration are importance factors that influence antimicrobial activity of tannin.
Conclusion: Inhibition zones of growth were varied among plant seeds.

Appendiceal infection by Entamoeba histolytica presenting like acute appendicits

Munteha Maddah Hassan

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 8-12

Abstract : Aim of study : This study has been undertaken for detecting the rate of parasitic appendicitis can cause signs , symptoms and appendiceal pain resemble to those of acute appendicitis to avoid the surgery and its complications.Patients and methods : The contents of 60 surgically removed appendices were examined under the microscope by direct and stained methods ,the remained parts preserved in 10% Formalin to prepare permanent slides for histopathological study next . Blood samples from each patients was collected to calculate WBC count .Name , age , sex and history for each patient were collected .Results : Out of 60 cases of appendectomies , 16 cases of amoebiasis (26.6 %) were diagnosed ,(13.3%) were males and (13.3% ) were females . The age group of (10 – 25) year was the most infected between the other groups. There is no significant differences between positive and negative groups in the WBC count . Conclusion : Entamoeba histolytica was the most frequent parasite in the contents of the appendices and many of these cases diagnosed as acute appendicitis without the presence of any evidence of acute inflammation .

Bacterial vaginosis and Candida albicans vaginitis among women in Ramadi City

Huda R. S. AL-Alwani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 13-18

AbstractPatients and methods: A prospective study was performed involving 65 women who consecutively attended Gynecological ward in Maternity and Child Hospital in Ramadi for complaints of genital malodour and/or abnormal vaginal discharge. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 30 women on the basis of four diagnostic criteria: vaginal pH> 4.7, homogenous vaginal discharge, a positive amine test and presence clue cells. This diagnosis was further strengthened by microscopy of wet preparation and stained smears and culture of vaginal discharge under aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and anaerobic cultural condition. Results: A total of 65 high vaginal specimens, bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 30 (46.2%) women, vulvovaginal yeast fungi infection in 12 (18.5%) women, other aetiology in 16 (24.6%) and in Seven (10.8%) women showing sterile vaginal discharge. The sensitivity for in vitro bacterial vaginosis detecting criteria was > 90% with the exception of homogenous discharge (73.3%) and their specificity was > 90% except vaginal pH > 4.5 (56%). Gardenerella vaginalis 27 (90%) was the predominant bacteria isolated in women suffering from bacterial vaginosis followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (63.3%) and Streptococcus faecalis 13 (43.3%). Candida albicans 11 (91.6%) was the major cause of vulvovaginal yeast fungi infections followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1 (8.3%). Conclusions: The four diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis supported by gram staining and facultative anaerobic culture should be introduce into laboratory routine procedures to differentiate symptomatic carrier (true infection) caused largely by Gardenerella vaginalis from asymptomatic carrier (colonization).Also, there was a strong association between diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and the occurrence of Gardenerella vaginalis. Further, there was no difference between women with or without bacterial vaginosis in regards to contraceptive methods used (except for use of an intrauterine device). Further more, Diabetes mellitus, hygienic condition were the most predominant risk factors associated with highly frequently fungal isolates, Candida albicans.

Biological control of Schistosoma haematobium infectionusing Chaetogaster limnaei

Ismail A. Al-Hadithi; Sarab F. Al-Ani; Alaa A. Al-khafaji

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 19-26

Abstract:Objective: An attempt was made for controlling the infective stage of schistosomiasis by eradication of cercariae (swimming stage ) by Ch. limnaei which live in the shell of snails which are the intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Our work aims at studying the role of Ch. limnaei as biological control of S. haematobium.Methods: A total of 759 snails, 322 snails (Bulinus truncatus) the intermediate host of S. haematobium and 437 Physa sp. were collected from two water-bodies of Rummana sub-district (Rummana centre and Rabut area). The snails were investigated and classified according key of freshwater snails. Snails were counted and examined for shedding of schistosoma' cercariae, and also for the presence of Chaetogaster limnaei in the shell of snails (B. truncatus & Physa sp.). The time for ingestion of cercariae by Ch. limnaei were recorded.Results: Out of a total 322 B. truncatus snails collected from both areas of Rummana sub-district , 59 (18,3%) snails were found to be shedding cercaria of S. haematobium. The percentage of presence of Ch. limnaei in Physa sp. was approximately resemble (25,5%) to that observed in B. truncatus (20,8%) in Rummana sub-district. A total mean & standard deviations of cercaria & Ch. limnaei isolated from B. truncatus snails in Rummana sub-district were found to be 7,915± 2.238 & 5.030±2.022, respectively. When 100 cercaria were examined with single Ch. limnaei , the first and second periods (15 & 30 minutes); The percentages of cercariae ingestion by Ch. limnaei were 51% and 51% respectively. while ingestion rates 50% & 41.7% were observed in the periods of 45 & 60 minutes respectively.Conclusion: the oligochaete may protect the hosts from trematode infection and may have an important role in biological control of schistosomiasis.Keyword: Biological control, schistosomiasis

Causes of Hemifacial Pain: A Descriptive Study in Al-Ramadi General Hospital

Dr.kamal T. Al-Kubaisi; Dr. Ameer A. Al-Aqeedy; Dr. Raid M.S.AL-Ani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 27-32

Abstract:Objectives: The primary objective of our study was to describe the causes of hemifacial pain . Our secondary objective was to determine the frequency of chronic rhinosinusitis in patients presented with hemifacial pain.Patients and Methods: Two hundred thirty six patients with hemifacial pain were included in the study. A careful history with thorough clinical examination and an appropriate investigations was done on all patients to reach the final diagnosis of there complaints.Results: The highest(33.9%) age group affected were 21-30year. No statistical significant ( P value > 0.05) regarding the sex and the side involved in our patients. The most common cause was the chronic rhinosinusitis 82(35.7%), while the second most common cause was TMJ disorders(21.3%). All our patients with migraine (6.3%), comes with left sided facial pain.. Six patient have malignancies, three of them have sinonasal carcinoma and three have nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Conclusion: Hemifacial pain is a common complaint and it’s a challenge to reach the diagnosis of the cause behind it. The commonest cause in our study was nasal and paranasal sinuses problems 110(46.6%),then 68(28.8%) patients with dental and TMJ(Temporomandibular joint) disorders, 52 patients(22%) with miscellaneous causes, and lastly, 6 patients(2.5%) with opthalmological causes. In this study, 6 patients with malignancies is the cause hemifacial pain. Key words: Hemifacial pain, Iraq.

Crystalline biofilm produced by Proteus mirabilis: an overview on their formation assays and antimicrobials interaction

Shaymaa H.M. Al-Kubaisy; Mushtak T.S. Al-Ouqaili

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 33-42

Abstract:Objective: The aim of this study was to detect biofilm formation by study isolates of Proteus mirabilis qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, depending on minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) value and in term of biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility test for selected antimicrobial agents against the study isolates was detected. Patients and methods: Qualitative biofilm formation assays (tube method and Foley-catheter assay) and quantitative assay by spectrophotometric method with ELISA reader were achieved against 15 isolates of Proteus mirabilis. Planktonic and biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed.Results: Out of 15 isolates of Proteus mirabilis, biofilms were produced in all these isolates (100%) in both of tube and Foley-catheter method. In the spectrophotometric method, our results showed that, all study isolates produced biofilm strongly in the glucose-supplemented media. Our result showed that minimal inhibitory concentrations were 12.5 ±10.1 µg/ml, 46.4 ±23.7 µg/ml and 9.6 ±3.3 µg/ml for ciprofloxacin, piperacillin and amikacin respectively against logarithmic phase planktonic cells of Proteus mirabilis. Also, biofilm inhibitory concentrations and minimal biofilm eradication concentrations for selected antimicrobial agents were reached 50-100 X folds higher than MICs to inhibit and eradicate Proteus mirabilis biofilm. Conclusion: It is suggested that biofilm production was affected by the presence of glucose in the culture media. Furthermore, in biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility test, the biofilm producer isolates of Proteus mirabilis required 50-100 X folds higher than MIC for the same isolates at planktonic state to inhibit and eradicate bacterial biofilm from the surface of catheters. Key words: Crystalline biofilm, formation, antimicrobial interaction.

Evaluation Of Referral CT Scan For Rhinosinusitis

Rasheed Ali Rashid

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 47-49

AbstractObjective:- The aim of this study is analysis of CT scan referral for rhinosinusitis in Tikrit teaching hospital.Patients and methods:- fifty eight patient were included in this study, who they referred for CT scan of the nose and paranasal sinuses. The main complaint of the patients was headache. Two patient were excluded from this study because they had malignancy of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Results:- out of 56 patients there were 22 male and 34 female. The age ranged from 6-65 year. Sixteen patient(28.5%) had normal CT scan.Conclusion:- There was indiscriminate referral to CT scan for rhinosinusitis and it was considered wrongly as first diagnostic tool for rhinosinusitis.Key Words: Ct Scan, Rhinosinusitis

Serum Bilirubin, Protein, and Ceruloplasmin in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Nisreen M. Khalfl; Rana T. Mohsen; Abdullah Kh. Ibrahem

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 55-60

Abstract:Objective: A prospective study carried out to assess serum levels of bilirubin, protein, and ceruloplasmin of 50 consecutive patients of myocardial infarction (AMI) with age ranges between 35-74 years (49.54±8.17),45 were males and 10 were females. Patient and methods: Fifty consecutive cases with symptoms and signs suggestive of AMI admitted to ICCU their age ranges between 35-74 year (49.54 ± 8.17), 41 were males and 9 were females. These patients supported by ECG and cardiac markers. Blood samples (5ml) were collected for analysis during 72 hours of admission at 9 a.m. Forty of healthy Iraqi volunteers of age- and sex-matched as a compared groups without any disease were enrolled.Results: Results showed that serum bilirubin and ceruloplasmin were significant higher among patient group (P=0.005) and (P

Synthesis and Studies of some hydrophilic acrylic denture base material

Mahmoud S. Muter

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 61-70

AbstractExperiment: Heat cured acrylic dental base material was prepared through using a new formula which includes acrylic and methacrylic acid, and new polymer : monomer ratio The specimens was prepared by useing different composition of denture base materials. Benzoyl peroxide is used as initiator to polymerization of polymer/ monomer mixture. The heating process used to control polymerization according to certain program.Discussion: The new chemical modification of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was prepared by using alkali of different concentrations. Added the prepared (PMAC) to the powder (PMMA), in this case a blend and not copolymer is obtained. While methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer was copolymerized with acrylic acid (AC) and methacrylic acid (MAC). Conclusions: The effect of the variables on residual monomer concentration like gas-liquid chromatography analysis and determination acid value, porosity as well as the preparing polymer was characterized by infra red (I.R) spectra. In our case we have used a new ratio of polymer to monomer through which we achieved no monomer content and no porosity the last finding is believed to be responsible for good physico-chemical and physico-mechanical properties.

The Prevalence of Lower Limb Amputations in Al-Ramadi City

Dr.Ayyoub A. Al-Dolaymi

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 71-75

AbstractAim: The study aims at determining the prevalence and causes of lower limb amputations in Al-Ramadi General Hospital.Methods: The medical data and records of all patients with lower limb amputation who were treated in Al-Ramadi General Hospital from January 2003 to January 2008 were reviewed. Age, sex, cause and level of amputation were taken in to consideration.Results: we record a total number of 221 patients were studied among them 125 male (56%) and 96 female (44%). The mean age was 44 years. Trans-femoral amputation was the commonest leading level of amputation 29%, followed by toe amputation 26%. Diabetes Mellitus DM (42%) was the most common cause of amputation followed by trauma (41%).Conclusions: Diabetes Mellitus is the main cause of lower limb amputation in Al-Ramadi city. Good control of blood sugar and education programs are important to minimize the complication of this disease. Proper identification of the high risk patients and follow-up programs should reduce the occurrence of the amputationRecommendations: It is recommended to develop of high specialized centers for treatment and follow-up of diabetic patients.Keywords: amputation, trauma, prevalence, diabetes.

The role of campylobacter species in diarrhea among children under five years of age in Ramadi city ,west of Iraq .

Saleem O. Al-Mawla; Fakhri J Al-Dalla Ali; Mohammad M.Al-Ani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 76-87

Objective: The main objectives of the present study were to identify the incidence of Campylobacter species and their antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors among children with diarrhea under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city.Materials and methods: Two hundred eighty children under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city for management of diarrhea over a period of one year from (1st of October 2005 to 30th of September 2006), were studied for identification of Campylobacter species as a cause of diarrhea. Each child was studied for the followings: age, sex, residency, source of water supply, associated symptoms, type of feeding and family history of chicken breeding.Specific cultures of stool specimens for Campylobacter were done for all patients and also for ordinary bacterial agents. Isolates were identified and the percentage of the causative agents were discussed .Results: Campylobacter species as a causative agent of acute diarrhea in Ramadi city was found to be 8.92%.The incidence of Campylobacter species among other bacterial causes of diarrhea was 21.2%. Ciprofloxacin , nalidixic acid and clindamycin demonstrated high level of susceptibility (96%, 92% and 96% respectively), while the remaining antibiotics showed either moderate susceptibility or resistance.Conclusion: Campylobacter species is an imprtant cause for diarrhea among children under five years of age admitted to maternity and children hospital in Ramadi city. Bottle feeding and chicken breeding are important risk factors for getting Campylobacter infection. Ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and clindamycin are the most effective treatment for Campylobacter species, and recommended as drugs of choice.Keywords: campylobacter , diarrhea ,under five ,Ramadi.

Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus Infection among Aborted Women in Al-Anbar Governorate

Abbas Ubaid Al-Janabi; Dr.Jalil Ibrahim Al-Mishhadani

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 88-97

Abstract :Background: Toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infection constitutes a major economic and public health problem in the world particulary in the developing countries including the Middle East due to the high rate of morbidity and mortality especially., among pregnant women and patients. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and infection among aborted women in order to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care.Materials and Methods: A total number of 340 blood samples (230 samples from aborted women and 110 samples from normal pregnant women as control was collected and tested for the presence of IgG and IgM concering Toxoplasma gondii and CMV. Results: A significant higher rate of IgG and IgM specific for Toxoplasma (58.3% and 8.3%) among aborted women than control women (36.4% and 2.7%), respectively. A higher seropositivity rates of anti-CMV IgG (90.4%) and IgM (6.1%) in aborted women than in normal control women (82.7% and 3.6%), respectively. The overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis and CMV infection was increased with increasing age of aborted women and frequency of recurrent of abortion .The rates of toxoplasmosis and CMV infection were higher among abortd women living in rural areas than those living in urban areas. Conclusion: Toxoplasmosis as well as CMV infection are more prevalent among aborted women