Issue 1

Frequency of Intestinal Metaplasia in Dyspeptic Patients in Northern Iraq

Muhammed Tafash; Haitham N. Al-Koubaisi; Arkan A. Al-Esawi

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Background: Intestinal metaplasia is a paracancerous lesion affecting the gastric mucosa in patients with chronic gastritis. Prevalence of intestinal metaplasia is different from region to another; In Iraq there is no available data (at least by the Ministry of Health ) covering this subject.Objectives: To estimate the frequency of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in dyspeptic patients in Northern Iraq. Also, to assess the age and sex distribution of IM. Further, to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori organisms in gastric mucosa that got IM.Materials and Methods: A total number of 476 antral gastric biopsies were collected in Al-Sulaymaniyah GIT-Centre and examined histologically to detect intestinal metaplasia and then these biopsies stained by Giemsa to detect H.pylori organisms.Results: The frequency of intestinal metaplasia in the antral gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients was 8.19 %. More than 90% of patients were above the age of 40 years and there was no significant gender predominance. H.pylori colonization in gastric mucosa is significantly decreased in case of IM. Keywords: Intestinal metaplasia , dyspeptic ,chronic gastritis , Iraq

The Effect of Body Mass Index and Serum Estradiol on Serum Prostatic Specific Antigen in Normal Iraqi Men

Nehad Nejris Helal

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 7-13

Background: Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) is one of the promising tumor markers of this decade. PSA level correlates positively with age and prostatic volume, and age-adjusted PSA values and the PSA density can be used to more precisely screen for prostatic carcinoma.
Aim of the Study: Is to identify the effect of body mass index and serum estradiol level on serum PSA in normal men in Salahaldin province.
Subjects & Methods: A cross-sectional controlled study was conducted during the body mass index from the 1st of February 2009 to the end of August 2009 in Salahaldin province. 50 males with BMI ≥ 30 [obese group or group (1)] and 50 males with BMI ≥ 18.5 and < 25 [control group or group (2)] were enrolled in this study. Subjects were collected from Tikrit Teaching Hospital. All subjects were within the same age group between 40-50 years of age. Total serum PSA, serum estradiol, body mass index, and prostatic volume measurement were done for every person in the study. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Analysis was performed by SPSS software, version 17.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA).
Results: The mean age of group (1) was 44 + 2.8 years; while for group (2) was 45.4 + 2 years (P=0.31). Also no significant statistical difference was identified between groups concerning prostatic volume, mean 19.9 + 3.6 ml for group (1) and mean volume was 20.7 + 3.4 ml for group (2) (P=0.48). Mean BMI for group (1) 34.85 + 3.7 kg/m2 (CI 33.8-35.9) was significantly higher than that of group (2), 21.9 + 2.78 kg/m2 (CI 21.4-22.42), P< 0.0001. Mean PSA level for group (2) was significantly higher than that of group (1), 3 + 0.7 ng/ml (CI 2.78-3.2), 2.28 + 0.89 ng/ml (CI 2-2.53) respectively, P< 0.001. Mean estradiol level in group (1) was 91.6 + 20.5 pg/ml (CI 85.8-97.5), whereas it was 57.5 + 22.4 pg/ml (CI 51.1-63.9) for group (2), P< 0.0001. The bivariate correlation showed strong inverse relation between PSA level and BMI (Pearson r=0.635, P<0.01). PSA level had strong inverse relation with estadiol level, (Pearson r=0.705, P<0.001). On applying linear regression model, again inverse relations with strong linear trend between PSA level and both BMI and estradiol level. The increase in BMI and estradiol level was associated with considerable decrease in PSA level.
Conclusions: BMI and serum Estradiol had an inverse relationship with serum PSA level. Further studies with larger number of subjects are crucial to asses the specific biological pathway in relation between PSA and BMI.

Keywords: Prostatic specific antigen, Body mass index.

Prevalence of Anterior Open bite In Orthodontic patients In Ramadi City

Taee; Zena Hekmat Al

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 14-18

Background: Anterior open bite is vertical dental separation between the upper and lower incisors when the posterior teeth are in full occlusion and lead to malocclusion which effect the esthetic of the patient and need orthodontic treatment.Objectives: To assess the prevalence of anterior open bite in orthodontic patients in Ramadi city and severity of these cases.Patients and Methods: (400) orthodontic patients of ( 15 – 30 ) years old were examined for the presence or absence of anterior open bite then measure the overbite by Results: (16) patients out of the total number have anterior open bite, (6) are males and (10) are females (8) of them are moderate, (5) of them are severe and (3) of them are extreme. Conclusions: We conclude that over all anterior open bite are (4%) of the cases. The patients with anterior open bite are (62.5%) females and (37.5%) males and the females attending orthodontic clinic more than males.Keyword: open bite, orthodontic patient, prevalence, Ramadi city,Iraq.

Histopathological Changes of Gallbladder Mucosa Due to Cholelithiasis

Arkan Al-Esawi; Samiea M.H. Al-Genabi; Naheda I.H.Al-Dulymi

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 19-25

Objectives: This work was carried out to study the diverse histopathological changes in the gallbladder mucosa as a result of cholelithiasis.Patients and methods: The study included 25 of gallbladder specimens, which were resected. They were collected from Al-Ramadi General Hospital. Stones were found in each specimen of gallbladder. Gross examination for length and width of gallbladder was calculated and the samples were fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. The relation of age and gender with cholelithiasis was studied in this work.Results: In gross examination, We found increase in length (Mean=4.64cm) and width (Mean=2cm). Also our observation recorded increase of cholelithiasis in females compared with males1:24(4:96%) and increase of cholelithiasis with aged (Mean=44) and also gallstones were calculated. Histological changes in mucosa of gallbladder by using heamatoxylin and eosin stains were observed and calculated the percentage as following: hyperplasia was observed in 14(46%), antral metaplasia 8(32%), intestinal metaplasia in 3(8) and dysplasia in 1(4%) Conclusion: We found that cholelithiasis and even silent gallstones can Produce 56% in the gallbladder mucosa, which could be a precursor lesion gallbladder carcinoma. Key word: Cholelithiasis, dysplasia, hyperplasia, metaplasia.

The Evaluation of Impacted Third Molars Using Panoramic Radiograph

Afrah Adnan Khalil; Suheir Wadea Abood; Tahrir Nazal Al-Delaimi

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 26-33

Background: Impacted third molars are developmental pathologic medical deformities characteristic of a modern civilization. Surveys of the prevalence of impacted third molars in Anbar province and the population of different countries and races are relatively rare.Objectives & Aims: To evaluate the cases of impacted third molars among dental students.Materials & Methods: A total of 312 students were examined at Oral Diagnosis Department, mean age was 20 years, including (47%) males and (53%) females. Panoramic radiographs were taken in College of Dentistry, Anbar University using Cranex-Soredex panoramic x-ray machine (Helsinki, Finland). The panoramic Films were processed by Kodak RP X-OMAT automatic processor, the radiographs were studied & examined and the third molars were classified according to the state of eruption using simple classification adapted by the authors.Results: The number of third molars found in 312 subjects was 1027; 468 teeth were in the maxilla and 569 teeth in the mandible. 9 (3%) subjects had third molar agenesis also 238 (76%) subjects had all four third molars, 53 (17%) subjects had three third molars, and 12 (4%) subjects had two third molars. Conclusions: The present study concluded that one half of the mandibular third molars were in mesioangular position and 39% of the third molars were in vertical position.Key words: Impacted teeth, third molars, panoramic radiograph,Iraq.

Purification and Characterization of Surlactin Produced by Lactobacillus Acidophilus

Munira Ch. I; H.H. Khanaqa; Fouad H. K

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 34-39

Objectives: The aim of research is purification and characterization of surlactin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy women. Materials and Methods: The stationary growth phase for Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy women from (Kamal Al-Samaraei and Al-Alweia Maternity Hospitals) in Baghdad was adopted on production of surlactin, after separation of bacterial cells from the growth media (Man-Rogosa Sharpe, MRS), incubated in phosphate buffer (0.1 molar)or four hours at temperature of 25 oC to produce Surlactin. It was purified by using paper filtration, dialyses and concentration using sucrose. Purified Surlactin is characterized by the best pH, incubation temperature and time, inoculation volume per 10 milliter of the media, storage condition and total molecular weight obtained by gel filtration. Also it studies the importance of magnesium and manganese sulfate for the bacterial growth and for surlactin production.Results: Results of purified and characterized surlactin showed that the best pH was at 6.0, while the incubation temperature and time were 25؛C for four hours with inoculation volume of 600 µ liter (6×107 cell / milliter) per 10 milliter of the media. It is active at a temperature up to 75؛C for an hour and it keeps its activity for six months when storage it at -20 ؛C , while at 4 ؛C it remains active for only one month. Total molecular weight is obtained by gel filtration and found to be 60-80 K Dalton. Magnesium and manganese sulfate are important for the bacterial growth and for surlactin production consequently at concentration of 0.04 and 0.01%, respectively for isolates.Conclusion: Lactobacillus acidophilus was isolated from healthy women, who were capable of producing crude surlactin in stationary phase of growth, then purified and characterized. Some physical and chemical factors affecting the ability of the bacteria in the production of surlactin had been studied, later identified optimal conditions for growth and increase production of surlactin.Keywords: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Surlactin, Biosurfactants, Purification.

Treatment of Perniosis with Oral Nifedipine in Comparison with Topical 5% Minoxidil Solution in Iraqi Patients. Single Blind Comparative Study

Khalid M. Awad; Abdullah S. Hasan; Thamir A. Kubais

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 40-46

Background: Perniosis (chilblains) is a common dermatological problem. The condition results from abnormal reaction to cold, it is seen during the cold months of winter. Many treatment modalities have been tried with variable results.Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of nifidipine in comparison with topical 5% minoxidil solution.Methods: This was a single blind comparative therapeutic trial conducted in the Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar, Iraq between December 2008 and March 2009. Sixty-two patients with perniosis were enrolled in this study, they were divided randomly into 2 groups, depending on the type of treatment. Group A: 42 patients received an oral sustained release preparation of nifedipine 20 mg once daily for one week then twice a day for another week. Group B: 20 patients received topical 5 % minoxidil solution applied twice daily for two weeks. Detailed history and full clinical examination were carried out for each case, regarding all relevant points related to the disease.Results: The ages ranged from 9-68 years with a mean‌±SD of 21±10.2 years. They comprised 37 females and 25 males, with a female to male ratio of 1.5:1. All patients did not receive any medical remedies before the start of the study. In group A: 35 patients completed the 2 weeks treatment course. Twenty (57%) patients showed good improvement and 9(26%) showed very good improvement and complete cure after 2 weeks, which was statistically significant p

Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid in Lead Exposed Subject

Bashar Hamid Abdullah; Rafil Hameed Rasheed; Shaimaa Hamid Mudher

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 47-53

Background: Lead poisoning has been recognized since antiquity. In the second century B.C., Dioscorides, a Greek physician said “lead makes the mind give way” lead poisoning in adults continues to occur today, mostly as a consequence of occupational exposures. Heavy metal poisoning is the toxic accumulation of heavy metals in the soft tissues of the body. In human, lead can results in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Effects at the subcellular level as well as effects on the overall functioning of the body have been noted and range from inhibition of enzymes to the production of marked morphological changes and death. Such changes occur over a broad ranges of doses, the developing human generally being more sensitive than the adult. Objectives: To Study the possibility of using salivary lead concentration as alternative to blood lead concentration and estimate (clinical, biochemical, hematological and saliva cytological) changes to in lead exposed individual. Patients and Methods: The sample population of this study was comprised 56 lead exposed subjects and 20 healthy subjects. The general information's were taken from each person including the name, age and duration of the lead exposure as well as saliva and blood samples. Results: The result of this study showed a significant difference in the salivary lead concentration of the exposed and healthy groups while the blood lead concentration in the same groups were highly significant difference, that is mean the saliva has a significant value in the detection of lead toxicity.Conclusion: Saliva testing for lead can become a valuable strategy for meeting the increasing demand for lead testing.

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Type II Diabetic Women inRamadi City

a E. Al-Tarboli; Faze; Huda R. Al-Alwani; Khalid M. Al-Dulaimi

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 45-60

Background: Urinary tract in diabetics is one of the most common site for infection, not infrequently associated with serious complications. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 diabetic women of Al-Anbar population.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: A total of 108 non-pregnant type 2 diabetic women (32 years to 100 years old) with no abnormalities of the urinary tract system were studied from March to November 2007. All the participants were symptoms free regarding urinary tract infection. Pyuria, macroalbuminuria glucosuria ,Age, and, duration of diabetes were assessed and compared in participants with and without bacteriuria. Bacteriuria was defined as the presence of at least 105 colony forming units/ml of 1 or 2 bacterial species in a culture of clean-voided midstream urine confirmed by a second culture.Results: The prevalence of ASB (Asymptomatic bacteriuria) was 33.3%. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent microorganism responsible for positive urine culture (61.1%) . Most of the isolated microorganisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Norfloxacin and Ciprofloxacin. Pyuria, macroalbuminuria and glucosuria had a meaningful relationship with ASB but no associations were found between age, duration of diabetes and the presence of ASB. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic women suffering from pyuria, macroalbuminuria and glucosuria had higher prevalence of ASB. Urine culture can be recommended for diabetic women even when they are symptoms free regarding UTI.Key words: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Type 2 diabetic women, Ramadi-Iraq.

Study of Therapeutic Patterns of Anti- Hypertensive Drugs for Elderly in Al- Ramadi City

Hameed I. Ali Al-Zagroot

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 61-67

Objectives: Is to study the prescribing patterns of anthihypertensive drugs in elderly patients.
Patients and Methods: 420 elderly hypertensive patients were studied in the out patient clinic of Al- Ramadi general hospital from November 2003- June2004. Age, Sex, and types of antihypertensive drugs they use were recorded, classified and the percentage of each drug was calculated.
Results: Total number of patients was 420, with a mean age of 71±5.2 Ys. 200 patients were on monotherapy, 220 patients were on more than one drug. The commonest antihypertensive drug group prescribed was angiotensine converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (31%), than diuretics (24%) then β-blockers (21%) while calcium channels blockers (CCBs) (17%) and (7%) for other groups. The commonest combination therapy was ACE inhibitors and diuretics (31% of the combined prescriptions).
Conclusion: Our prescribing patterns do not confirm to the regimens published in the most recent medical articles and recommendations. We have to emphasize the use of diuretics as first line treatment for elderly hypertensive patients while other groups as second line treatment

Immunohistochemical Expression of P53 In Different Types of Ameloblastoma

Dunia W.S. Al- Fayad

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 66-73

Introduction: Authors agree that ameloblastoma is a benign but aggressive tumor develops in the jaw area either from tooth bud epithelium, or the epithelial remnants left after tooth eruption or extraction. The WHO classified the Ameloblastoma, in its 2005 tumors classification, as a group of tumors, each one of tumors of this group has its own clinical behaviour and radiographic appearance. The local invasion and destruction of the adjacent structures are the source of risk in ameloblastoma. Nevertheless, a high rate of recurrence is reported after surgery. A lot of immunohistochemical researches have been conducted in the last two decades in an attempt to elucidate the etiologic factors and treatment modalities for this tumor. P53 gene plays a key role in cell cycle regulation and it has been shown as an important factor in the genesis of some types of this tumor that affects its behavior.Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to investigate the association between P53 positivity and some types of ameloblastoma.Materials and Methods: Twenty specimens of ameloblastoma have been studied immunohistochemically with p53 expression using monoclonal antibody (according to instruction of the Immunotech, Marseille, Codex-9-France). Results: Observed tumor types were as follows: 7, follicular type, 5, plexiform type and 8 with unicystic type.P53 was found to be positively expressed in 17 (85%) cases, and negatively in 3(15%) cases.Conclusion: The unicystic type showed higher intensity of p53 expression which indicates higher rate of invasion and recurrence.Keywords: Ameloblastoma ; P53 .

Immunological Study of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Women with Recurrent Fetal Loss in Ramadi City, West of Iraq

Abeer Y. AL-Karboli; Mushtak T. AL-Ouqaili

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 74-78

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to detected the role of anti-cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG antibodies in the diagnosis of CMV infection in women with recurrent fetal loss . Patients and Methods : Eighty-seven sera were obtained from women suffering from recurrent fetal loss admitted to Maternity and Children Hospital in Ramadi during the period from September 2007 to June 2008 . Anti-Cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA Technique. The positive cases were tested again two weeks later to prevent seroprevalnce conversion.Results : Out of the 87 asymptomatic pregnant women (33.3%) tested positive for the CMV specific IgM antibody and 28.5% positive for IgG antibody revealing primary infection during the first trimester and increasing the possibility of transmission of infection in uterus to the fetus .Conclusion: The study concluded that screening of pregnant women, although, cannot change the outcome of the disease but may be useful in alerting the physician for possible infection to the baby. Hence routine screening of females of child bearing age for CMV infection is desired in order to reduce the fatal outcome of the pregnancy occurring due to the CMV infectionKeywords : Anti-CMV IgG , Anti-CMV IgM , recurrent Fetal loss .

Beneficial Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Ginger Rhizome on Deleterious Effects Produced by Cimetidine on Sertoli Cells and Leydig Cells Functions in Male Mice

Omar S.I.Al-Janabi; Farid Jamil Omar AL-Tahan; Sattar S.Ibrahim

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 79-83

Background: Cimetidine, a common antpeptic ulcer agent, is well known to be associated with deleterious effects on male reproductive parameters. Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) has been reported to counteract the H2-receptor antagonistic activity of cimetidine.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome on some reproductive parameters and its interaction with cimetidine in male mice.
Materials and Methods: The parameters measured were: the number of sertoli cells and leydig cells (by standard histopathological techniques) and serum testosterone (by radio immune assay). Forty adult male mice divided into four equal groups (10 mice for each); the 1st group was left as control, the 2nd group was given hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome, the 3rd group was given cimetidine, the 4th group was administrated hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally at a dose of distilled water, 60,35, 60 and after 15 minutes followed by cimetidine at a dose of 35mg/kg B.W respectively once a day for 38 days of experiment (one spermatogenesis period). Hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus technique.
Results: Treatments with cimetidine alone showed a significant decrease, while with ginger extract alone showed a significant increase in all parameters when compared with the control group (P<0.05). While the combination treatment of cimetidine with ginger showed similar results to that of the control group (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger could improve the efficiency the reproductive parameters of male mice, and alleviate the possible side effects of cimetidine.

Efficiency of Surlactin Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus on Inhibition of Biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis

Fouad H. K; H.H. Khanaqa; Munira Ch. I

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 84-88

Objectives: The aims of this study were to screen for the presence of Lactobacillus acidophilus in vagina of healthy women and its ability in production and biological activity of its produced surlactin on inhibition of biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis
Material and Methods: Fifty vaginal swabs were collected from healthy women attending Kamal Al-Samaraei and Al-Alweis Maternity Hospitals in Baghdad. Inoculated blood and chocolate agar plates were incubated at 37oC for 18-24 hours. Initial isolations from vaginal samples were done under anaerobic atmosphere. Suspected colonies were first identified by cultural characteristics and Gram's stain. They were further identified by standard biochemical test (API 20A System) subsequently to use of selective media (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe, MRS).
Results: Out of fifty vaginal swabs from healthy women, there were eighteen isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus (36%) were isolated. The in vitro ability of these isolates to produced surlactin, in the stationary phase was performed by determining the quantity of protein and carbohydrates by following the standard biochemical procedures. It was found that all isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates produce surlactin but with various extents. The isolates no.15 and no.18 produced highest amount of surlactin which have more efficiency to destroy the biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis using test tube method. Similar result had been obtained when tested by inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria adhesion to the epithelial cells of urinary tract.
Conclusion: Lactobacillus acidophilus was isolated from vaginas of healthy women’s, which has ability in production of surlactin but with various extents and possess more efficient activity to destroy the biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Extra-Anatomical (Femoro-Femoral) Bypass GraftCase Report))))

Abdullah S. Alhassan; Labeeb Q. Abdulrahman; Saad M. Salih

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 89-92

AbstractA 64 years old male presented with sever intermittent claudication with skin became pale ,hair loss of the affected limb and nail abnormalities .The exercise tolerance (walking) for his limb not more than 50 meter and he stop due to sever limb pain.On examination the affected limb is cold and shiny with abnormal hair distribution and nail distruction.The pulses were absent from the femoral area downward including the popliteal, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries.Duplex study results was confirmed by arteriography showed localized segmental complete occlusion of the left common iliac artery from the bifurcation of abdominal aorta downward to the left external iliac artery and some sort of backflow through the common femoral artery downward with patent common femoral, superficial femoral and profunda femoris arteries.Keywords : Saad ,femoro-femoral grafts.

Missile Injury In Maxillofacial Region

Amera Kh. Al-Kaisi; Mahir Musfafa Abdul Hameed; Nather A. Rashied

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 90-96

Back ground: Various types of missile injuries were treated in AL-Kark General Hospital which include injuries in Maxillo_facial region.
Method :The patients Age, Sex,& residence were reviewed .Injuries oro_facial soft and hard tissues , injuries in other parts of the body and their incidence was also recorded.
Results : A total of 85 patients with various type of missile injuries were treated with in the period ranging from 26 March 2003 to 4 July 2004 successfully in AL-Kark General Hospital subspeciality ward, 34 patients 40%of all injuries were in maxillofacial region- Males predominated , 30 males ,91.76% against 4 females 8, 23%. Age group of 21-30 year was the commonest and the mean age was 33.3 years-Patients residence distribution was 20, 58.82% in ALKark side and 14, 41% in AL-Rusafa . Soft tissues of the mid face was mostly involved 15 patients 44.11%, while hard tissues were 19.55 ,88% distributed as follow :
The mandible was the most commonly fractured 8 patients ,32.52% .followed by zygoma 7 patients 20,58%.Maxilla was 2 patients , 5.88%, nasal bone was 1 patient and combined fractures (mandible +zygoma) was 1 patient ,2.94% While limb injuries was the most commonly observed fractures in other part of the body 39 patients ,45.88%.
Conclusions : In conclusion there is a high incidence of missile injuries which necessate an additional oral and maxillofacial centers at different locations in Baghdad to insure proper primary reconstruction of facial region to reduce subsequent disfigurment and morbidity.

A Study of Some Biochemical Parameters in Saliva of Hemodialiesed Patients

Thana I. Mustafa; Muna M. Yasseen; Rana H. Hamody; Ali M. Ibrahim

Al- Anbar Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 97-102

Background: Analysis of saliva contents may be used as diagnostic tool for the localization and assment of various systemic disease like end stag renal failure (ESRF).
Objectives: Saliva from patients of end stage renal failure undergoing Hemodialysis from both sex and healthy control group ,used to detect different parameter like PH, Na, K, Ca, Total-protein, urea, creatinine and amylase
Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva were collected from patients during dialysis session ,the PH was determined within (5 min) after saliva collection. Biochemical analysis of saliva includes (Na, K, Ca) and (total-protein ,urea, creatinine, amylase)
Results: There were significant different in PH, Na, K, Ca, total-protein, urea, creatinine, amylase in contrast to control group (p<0.01)but for Ca there were no significant different with control group(p>0.05).